Sources and Recommended Books

Frontal Resources

Working Memory

Cabbage, K., Brinkley, S., Gray, S., Alt, M., Cowan, N., Green, S., Kuo, T., & Hogan, T. P. (2017). Assessing working memory in children: The comprehensive assessment battery for children – Working memory (CABC-WM). Journal of Visualized Experiments, 124, 55121.

Ma, L., Chang, L., Chen, X., & Zhou, R. (2017). Working memory test battery for young adults: Computerized working memory assessment. PLOS ONE, 12(3), e0175047.

Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., & Elliott, J. (2010). Examining the link between working memory behaviour and academic attainment in children with ADHD: Working Memory and Academic Attainment in ADHD. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(7),

Fried, R., Chan, J., Feinberg, L., Pope, A., Woodworth, K. Y., Faraone, S. V., & Biederman, J. (2016). Clinical correlates of working memory deficits in youth with and without ADHD: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38(5), 487–496.

Bahmani, Z., Clark, K., Merrikhi, Y., Mueller, A., Pettine, W., Isabel Vanegas, M., Moore, T., & Noudoost, B. (2019). Prefrontal contributions to attention and working memory. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 41, 129–153.

Noyce, A. L., Lefco, R. W., Brissenden, J. A., Tobyne, S. M., Shinn-Cunningham, B. G., & Somers, D. C. (2021). Extended frontal networks for visual and auditory working memory. Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY), 32(4), 855–869.

Facial Tone

Guntinas-Lichius, O., Volk, G. F., Olsen, K. D., Mäkitie, A. A., Silver, C. E., Zafereo, M. E., Rinaldo, A., Randolph, G. W., Simo, R., Shaha, A. R., Vander Poorten, V., & Ferlito, A. (2020). Facial nerve electrodiagnostics for patients with facial palsy: A clinical practice guideline. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 277(7), 1855–1874.

Andresen, N. S., Zhu, V., Lee, A., Sebetka, W., Kimura, J., Hansen, M. R., Gantz, B. J., & Sun, D. Q. (2020). Electrodiagnostic testing in acute facial palsy: Outcomes and comparison of methods. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, 5(5), 928–935.

Fabricius, J., Kothari, S. F., & Kothari, M. (2021). Assessment and rehabilitation interventions for central facial palsy in patients with acquired brain injury: A systematic review. Brain Injury, 35(5), 511–519.

Tramontano, M., Morone, G., LA Greca, F. M., Marchegiani, V., Palomba, A., Iosa, M., Musto, G., & Simonelli, M. (2021). Sunnybrook Facial Grading System reliability in subacute stroke patients. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 57(5), 685–690.

Paolucci, T., Cardarola, A., Colonnelli, P., Ferracuti, G., Gonnella, R., Murgia, M., Santilli, V., Paoloni, M., Bernetti, A., Agostini, F., & Mangone, M. (2020). Give me a kiss! An integrative rehabilitative training program with motor imagery and mirror therapy for recovery of facial palsy. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 56(1), 58–67.

Rösler, K. M., Hess, C. W., & Schmid, U. D. (1989). Investigation of facial motor pathways by electrical and magnetic stimulation: Sites and mechanisms of excitation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1149–1156.

Bhardwaj, N., & Yadala, S. (2023). Neuroanatomy, corticobulbar tract. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Primitive Reflexes

Kalemba, A., Lorent, M., Blythe, S. G., & Gieysztor, E. (2023). The correlation between residual primitive reflexes and clock reading difficulties in school-aged children—A pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(3), 2322.

Gieysztor, E. Z., Choińska, A. M., & Paprocka-Borowicz, M. (2018). Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated motor problems in healthy preschool children. Archives of Medical Science : AMS, 14(1), 167–173.

Capute, A. J., Accardo, P. J., Vining, E. P., Rubenstein, J. E., Walcher, J. R., Harryman, S., & Ross, A. (1978). Primitive reflex profile. A pilot study. Physical Therapy, 58(9), 1061–1065.

Damasceno, A., Delicio, A. M., Mazo, D. F. C., Zullo, J. F. D., Scherer, P., Ng, R. T. Y., & Damasceno, B. P. (2005). Primitive reflexes and cognitive function. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria, 63(3A), 577–582.×2005000400004

Schott, J. M., & Rossor, M. N. (2003). The grasp and other primitive reflexes. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 74(5), 558–560.

Yoo, H., & Mihaila, D. M. (2023). Rooting reflex. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.


Lin-Wei, O., Xian, L. L. S., Shen, V. T. W., Chuan, C. Y., Halim, S. A., Ghani, A. R. I., Idris, Z., & Abdullah, J. M. (2021). Deep tendon reflex: The tools and techniques. What surgical neurology residents should know. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences : MJMS, 28(2), 48–62.

Nick, J. M. (2003). Deep tendon reflexes: The what, why, where, and how of tapping. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN, 32(3), 297–306.

Rodriguez-Beato, F. Y., & De Jesus, O. (2023). Physiology, deep tendon reflexes. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Manschot, S., Van Passel, L., Buskens, E., Algra, A., & Van Gijn, J. (1998). Mayo and NINDS scales for assessment of tendon reflexes: Between observer agreement and implications for communication. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 64(2), 253–255.

Dual Tasking

Sakai, K., Ramnani, N., & Passingham, R. E. (2002). Learning of sequences of finger movements and timing: Frontal lobe and action-oriented representation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(4), 2035–2046.

Montero-Odasso, M., Casas, A., Hansen, K. T., Bilski, P., Gutmanis, I., Wells, J. L., & Borrie, M. J. (2009). Quantitative gait analysis under dual-task in older people with mild cognitive impairment: A reliability study. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 6, 35.

Stephens, J., Nicholson, R., Slomine, B., & Suskauer, S. (2018). Development and pilot testing of the dual task screen in healthy adolescents. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 72(3), 7203345020p1-7203345020p6.

 Almajid, R., & Goel, R. (2022). Assessment of dual-tasking during a dynamic balance task using a smartphone app: A pilot study. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 34(2), 115–121.

Abasıyanık, Z., Veldkamp, R., Fostier, A., Van Goubergen, C., Kalron, A., & Feys, P. (2022). Patient-reported outcome measures for assessing dual-task performance in daily life: A review of current instruments, use, and measurement properties. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(22), 15029.

Mirelman, A., Maidan, I., Bernad-Elazari, H., Nieuwhof, F., Reelick, M., Giladi, N., & Hausdorff, J. M. (2014). Increased frontal brain activation during walking while dual tasking: An fNIRS study in healthy young adults. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 11, 85.

Chaparro, G., Balto, J. M., Sandroff, B. M., Holtzer, R., Izzetoglu, M., Motl, R. W., & Hernandez, M. E. (2017). Frontal brain activation changes due to dual-tasking under partial body weight support conditions in older adults with multiple sclerosis. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 14, 65.

 Di Lazzaro, G., Ricci, M., Al-Wardat, M., Schirinzi, T., Scalise, S., Giannini, F., … Pisani, A. (2019). Technology-Based Objective Measures Detect Subclinical Axial Signs in Untreated, de novo Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 1–10. doi:10.3233/jpd-191758

Pull Test & Arm Swing

Tan, J., Thevathasan, W., McGinley, J., Brown, P., & Perera, T. (2019). An instrumented pull test to characterize postural responses. Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE, 146.

Hunt, A. L., & Sethi, K. D. (2006). The pull test: A history. Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 21(7), 894–899.

Nonnekes, J., Goselink, R., Weerdesteyn, V., & Bloem, B. R. (2015). The retropulsion test: A good evaluation of postural instability in Parkinson’s disease? Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 5(1), 43–47.

Visser, M., Marinus, J., Bloem, B. R., Kisjes, H., van den Berg, B. M., & van Hilten, J. J. (2003). Clinical tests for the evaluation of postural instability in patients with parkinson’s disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(11), 1669–1674.

Solopova, I. A., Kazennikov, O. V., Deniskina, N. B., Levik, Y. S., & Ivanenko, Y. P. (2003). Postural instability enhances motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 337(1), 25–28.

Wang, Q., Yu, M., Yan, L., Xu, J., Wang, Y., Zhou, G., & Liu, W. (2023). Altered functional connectivity of the primary motor cortex in tremor dominant and postural instability gait difficulty subtypes of early drug-naive Parkinson’s disease patients. Frontiers in Neurology, 14, 1151775.


Pegolo, E., Volpe, D., Cucca, A., Ricciardi, L., & Sawacha, Z. (2022). Quantitative evaluation of hypomimia in parkinson’s disease: A face tracking approach. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(4), 1358.

Su, G., Lin, B., Yin, J., Luo, W., Xu, R., Xu, J., & Dong, K. (2021). Detection of hypomimia in patients with Parkinson’s disease via smile videos. Annals of Translational Medicine, 9(16), 1307.

Gunnery, S. D., Naumova, E. N., Saint-Hilaire, M., & Tickle-Degnen, L. (2017). Mapping spontaneous facial expression in people with Parkinson’s disease: A multiple case study design. Cogent Psychology, 4, 1376425.

Maycas-Cepeda, T., López-Ruiz, P., Feliz-Feliz, C., Gómez-Vicente, L., García-Cobos, R., Arroyo, R., & García-Ruiz, P. J. (2021). Hypomimia in parkinson’s disease: What is it telling us? Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 603582.

Xu, P., Chen, A., Li, Y., Xing, X., & Lu, H. (2019). Medial prefrontal cortex in neurological diseases. Physiological Genomics, 51(9), 432–442.

Trujillo, P., van Wouwe, N. C., Lin, Y.-C., Stark, A. J., Petersen, K. J., Kang, H., Zald, D. H., Donahue, M. J., & Claassen, D. O. (2019). Dopamine effects on frontal cortical blood flow and motor inhibition in parkinson’s disease. Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 115, 99–111.


Nyström, M., Hooge, I., & Andersson, R. (2016). Pupil size influences the eye-tracker signal during saccades. Vision Research, 121, 95–103.

Shanidze, N., Ghahghaei, S., & Verghese, P. (2016). Accuracy of eye position for saccades and smooth pursuit. Journal of Vision, 16(15), 23.

Terao, Y., Fukuda, H., Sugiyama, Y., Inomata-Terada, S., Tokushige, S.-I., Hamada, M., & Ugawa, Y. (2018). Recording horizontal saccade performances accurately in neurological patients using electro-oculogram. Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE, 133, 56934.

Houben, M. M. J., Goumans, J., & van der Steen, J. (2006). Recording three-dimensional eye movements: Scleral search coils versus video oculography. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47(1), 179–187.

 Salvia, E., Harvey, M., Nazarian, B., & Grosbras, M. H. (2020). Social perception drives eye-movement related brain activity: Evidence from pro- and anti-saccades to faces. Neuropsychologia, 139, 107360.

Funahashi, S. (2014). Saccade-related activity in the prefrontal cortex: Its role in eye movement control and cognitive functions. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8.


Dan, X., Wechter, N., Gray, S., Mohanty, J. G., Croteau, D. L., & Bohr, V. A. (2021). Olfactory dysfunction in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Ageing Research Reviews, 70, 101416.

Özay, H., Çakır, A., & Ecevit, M. C. (2019). Retronasal olfaction test methods: A systematic review. Balkan Medical Journal, 36(1), 49–59.

Zarachi, A., Lianou, A. D., Pezoulas, V., Komnos, I., Milionis, O., Fotiadis, D., Milionis, H., Kastanioudakis, I. G., & Liontos, A. (n.d.). Visual analogue scale for the evaluation of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction of covid-19 patients in northwestern greece. Cureus, 15(3), e36413.

De Sousa Machado, A., Sousa, F., Silva, A., & Meireles, L. (n.d.). Visual analog scale and olfactory objective tests in hyposmia patients: Is there a link? Cureus, 15(2), e34712.

Leboucq, N., Menjot de Champfleur, N., Menjot de Champfleur, S., & Bonafé, A. (2013). The olfactory system. Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, 94(10), 985–991.

Yus, M., Matias-Guiu, J. A., Gil-Martínez, L., Gómez-Ruiz, N., Polidura, C., Jorquera, M., Delgado-Alonso, C., Díez-Cirarda, M., Matías-Guiu, J., & Arrazola, J. (2022). Persistent olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19 is associated with reduced perfusion in the frontal lobe. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 146(2), 194–198.

Finger Movements

Emos, M. C., & Rosner, J. (2023). Neuroanatomy, upper motor nerve signs. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Mayer, N. H., & Esquenazi, A. (2003). Muscle overactivity and movement dysfunction in the upper motoneuron syndrome. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 14(4), 855–883, vii–viii.

Weiner, M. F., Hynan, L. S., Rossetti, H., & Falkowski, J. (2011). Luria’s three-step test: What is it and what does it tell us? International Psychogeriatrics / Ipa, 23(10), 1602–1606.

Beatty, W. W., & Monson, N. (1990). Picture and motor sequencing in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 3(4), 192–197.

Opara, J., Małecki, A., Małecka, E., & Socha, T. (2017). Motor assessment in Parkinson’s disease. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM, 24(3), 411–415.

Goetz, C. G., Tilley, B. C., Shaftman, S. R., Stebbins, G. T., Fahn, S., Martinez-Martin, P., Poewe, W., Sampaio, C., Stern, M. B., Dodel, R., Dubois, B., Holloway, R., Jankovic, J., Kulisevsky, J., Lang, A. E., Lees, A., Leurgans, S., LeWitt, P. A., Nyenhuis, D., … Movement Disorder Society UPDRS Revision Task Force. (2008). Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (Mds-updrs): Scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 23(15), 2129–2170.

Drag, L. L., Bieliauskas, L. A., Kaszniak, A. W., Bohnen, N. I., & Glisky, E. L. (2009). Source memory and frontal functioning in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 15(3), 399–406.


Biering-Sørensen, F., Nielsen, J. B., & Klinge, K. (2006). Spasticity-assessment: A review. Spinal Cord, 44(12), 708–722.

Rekand, T. (2010). Clinical assessment and management of spasticity: A review. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 190, 62–66.

Thibaut, A., Chatelle, C., Ziegler, E., Bruno, M.-A., Laureys, S., & Gosseries, O. (2013). Spasticity after stroke: Physiology, assessment and treatment. Brain Injury, 27(10), 1093–1105.

Hugos, C. L., & Cameron, M. H. (2019). Assessment and measurement of spasticity in ms: State of the evidence. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 19(10), 79.

Centonze, D., Koch, G., Versace, V., Mori, F., Rossi, S., Brusa, L., Grossi, K., Torelli, F., Prosperetti, C., Cervellino, A., Marfia, G. A., Stanzione, P., Marciani, M. G., Boffa, L., & Bernardi, G. (2007). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex ameliorates spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 68(13), 1045–1050.

Molero-Chamizo, A., Salas Sánchez, Á., Álvarez Batista, B., Cordero García, C., Andújar Barroso, R., Rivera-Urbina, G. N., Nitsche, M. A., & Alameda Bailén, J. R. (2021). Bilateral motor cortex tdcs effects on post-stroke pain and spasticity: A three cases study. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12, 624582.

Parietal Resources

Sensory Extinction

Kamtchum-Tatuene, J., Allali, G., Saj, A., Bernati, T., Sztajzel, R., Pollak, P., Momjian-Mayor, I., & Kleinschmidt, A. (2017). An exploratory cohort study of sensory extinction in acute stroke: Prevalence, risk factors, and time course. Journal of Neural Transmission, 124(4), 483–494.

Kluger, B. M., Meador, K. J., Garvan, C. W., Loring, D. W., Townsend, D. T., & Heilman, K. M. (2008). A test of the mechanisms of sensory extinction to simultaneous stimulation. Neurology, 70(18), 1644–1645.

Kasner, S. E. (2006). Clinical interpretation and use of stroke scales. The Lancet. Neurology, 5(7), 603–612.

Basagni, B., Hakiki, B., Campagnini, S., Salvadori, E., Grippo, A., Paperini, A., Castagnoli, C., Hochleitner, I., Politi, A. M., Gemignani, P., Mosca, I. E., Franceschini, A., Bonotti, E. B., Sodero, A., Mannini, A., Pellicciari, L., Poggesi, A., Macchi, C., Carrozza, M. C., & Cecchi, F. (2021). Critical issue on the extinction and inattention subtest of NIHSS scale: An analysis on post-acute stroke patients attending inpatient rehabilitation. BMC Neurology, 21, 475.

Berlucchi, G., & Vallar, G. (2018). The history of the neurophysiology and neurology of the parietal lobe. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 151, 3–30.

Point Localization

Bell-Krotoski, J., Weinstein, S., & Weinstein, C. (1993). Testing sensibility, including touch-pressure, two-point discrimination, point localization, and vibration. Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists, 6(2), 114–123.

Ylioja, S., Pertovaara, A., Koivisto, J., Korvenoja, A., Artchakov, D., & Carlson, S. (2004). The effect of interstimulus interval on somatosensory point localization. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 21(1), 3–7.

Suda, M., Kawakami, M., Okuyama, K., Ishii, R., Oshima, O., Hijikata, N., Nakamura, T., Oka, A., Kondo, K., & Liu, M. (2021). Validity and reliability of the semmes-weinstein monofilament test and the thumb localizing test in patients with stroke. Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 625917.

Rea, P. (2015). Spinal tracts – ascending/sensory pathways. Essential Clinical Anatomy of the Nervous System, 133–160.


Talmasov, D., & Ropper, A. H. (2016). Tactile asymbolia. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia, 26, 164–165.

Deshpande, N., Metter, E. J., & Ferrucci, L. (2010). Validity of clinically derived cumulative somatosensory impairment index. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(2), 226–232.

Harvie, D. S., Kelly, J., Buckman, H., Chan, J., Sutherland, G., Catley, M., Novak, J., Tuttle, N., & Sterling, M. (2017). Tactile acuity testing at the neck: A comparison of methods. Musculoskeletal Science & Practice, 32, 23–30.

Knecht, S., Kunesch, E., & Schnitzler, A. (1996). Parallel and serial processing of haptic information in man: Effects of parietal lesions on sensorimotor hand function. Neuropsychologia, 34(7), 669–687.

Dolberg, R., Hinkley, L. B. N., Honma, S., Zhu, Z., Findlay, A. M., Byl, N. N., & Nagarjan, S. S. (2011). Amplitude and timing of somatosensory cortex activity in task specific focal hand dystonia. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(12), 2441–2451.

Gaubert, C. S., & Mockett, S. P. (2000). Inter-rater reliability of the Nottingham method of stereognosis assessment. Clinical Rehabilitation, 14(2), 153–159.

Petersen, E., Tomhave, W., Agel, J., Bagley, A., James, M., & Van Heest, A. (2016). The effect of treatment on stereognosis in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The Journal of Hand Surgery, 41(1), 91–96.

Kinnucan, E., Van Heest, A., & Tomhave, W. (2010). Correlation of motor function and stereognosis impairment in upper limb cerebral palsy. The Journal of Hand Surgery, 35(8), 1317–1322.

Mulcahey, M. J., Kozin, S., Merenda, L., Gaughan, J., Tian, F., Gogola, G., James, M. A., & Ni, P. (2012). Evaluation of the box and blocks test, stereognosis and item banks of activity and upper extremity function in youths with brachial plexus birth palsy. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics, 32 Suppl 2, S114-122.


Battelli, L., Alvarez, G. A., Carlson, T., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2009). The role of the parietal lobe in visual extinction studied with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(10), 1946–1955.

Doettl, S. M., & McCaslin, D. L. (2018). Oculomotor assessment in children. Seminars in Hearing, 39(3), 275–287.

Thomas, N. M., Dewhurst, S., Bampouras, T. M., Donovan, T., Macaluso, A., & Vannozzi, G. (2017). Smooth pursuits decrease balance control during locomotion in young and older healthy females. Experimental Brain Research, 235(9), 2661–2668.

Komogortsev, O. V., & Karpov, A. (2013). Automated classification and scoring of smooth pursuit eye movements in the presence of fixations and saccades. Behavior Research Methods, 45(1), 203–215.

Kontos, A. P., Deitrick, J. M., Collins, M. W., & Mucha, A. (2017). Review of vestibular and oculomotor screening and concussion rehabilitation. Journal of Athletic Training, 52(3), 256–261.

Sharpe, J. A. (2008). Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of smooth pursuit: Lesion studies. Brain and Cognition, 68(3), 241–254.

Schröder, R., Kasparbauer, A.-M., Meyhöfer, I., Steffens, M., Trautner, P., & Ettinger, U. (2020). Functional connectivity during smooth pursuit eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 124(6), 1839–1856.


Bell-Krotoski, J., Weinstein, S., & Weinstein, C. (1993). Testing sensibility, including touch-pressure, two-point discrimination, point localization, and vibration. Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists, 6(2), 114–123.

Ylioja, S., Pertovaara, A., Koivisto, J., Korvenoja, A., Artchakov, D., & Carlson, S. (2004). The effect of interstimulus interval on somatosensory point localization. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 21(1), 3–7.

Suda, M., Kawakami, M., Okuyama, K., Ishii, R., Oshima, O., Hijikata, N., Nakamura, T., Oka, A., Kondo, K., & Liu, M. (2021). Validity and reliability of the semmes-weinstein monofilament test and the thumb localizing test in patients with stroke. Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 625917.

Rea, P. (2015). Spinal tracts – ascending/sensory pathways. Essential Clinical Anatomy of the Nervous System, 133–160.


Roland, P. E. (1976). Astereognosis. Tactile discrimination after localized hemispheric lesions in man. Archives of Neurology, 33(8), 543–550.

Unnithan, A. K. A., & Emmady, P. D. (2023). Astereognosis.StatPearls Publishing.

Albert, M. L. (1973). A simple test of visual neglect. Neurology, 23(6), 658–664.

Kwon, S., Park, W., Kim, M., & Kim, J. M. (2020). Relationship between line bisection test time and hemispatial neglect prognosis in patients with stroke: A prospective pilot study. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 44(4), 292–300.

Chen, P., Chen, C. C., Hreha, K., Goedert, K. M., & Barrett, A. M. (2015). Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process uniquely measures spatial neglect during activities of daily living. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(5), 869-876.e1.

Nishida, D., Mizuno, K., Tahara, M., Shindo, S., Watanabe, Y., Ebata, H., & Tsuji, T. (2021). Behavioral assessment of unilateral spatial neglect with the catherine bergego scale (Cbs) using the kessler foundation neglect assessment process (Kf-nap) in patients with subacute stroke during rehabilitation in japan. Behavioural Neurology, 2021, 8825192.

Sarwar, A., & Emmady, P. D. (2023). Spatial neglect. StatPearls Publishing.

Vallar, G., & Calzolari, E. (2018). Unilateral spatial neglect after posterior parietal damage. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 151, 287–312.

Occipital Resources

Occipital Resources

Nayar, K., Voyles, A. C., Kiorpes, L., & Di Martino, A. (2017). Global and local visual processing in autism: An objective assessment approach. Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 10(8), 1392–1404.

Kooiker, M. J. G., van Gils, M. M., van der Zee, Y. J., Swarte, R. M. C., Smit, L. S., Loudon, S., van der Steen, S., Reiss, I. K. M., Pel, J. J. M., & van der Steen, J. (2021). Early screening of visual processing dysfunctions in children born very or extremely preterm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 729080.

Liston, D. B., & Stone, L. S. (2014). Oculometric assessment of dynamic visual processing. Journal of Vision, 14(14), 12.

(*Several different assessments found)

Brown, T., & Elliott, S. (2011). Factor structure of the motor-free visual perception test-3rd edition(MVPT-3). Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D’ergotherapie, 78(1), 26–36.

Auld, M., Boyd, R., Moseley, G. L., & Johnston, L. (2011). Seeing the gaps: A systematic review of visual perception tools for children with hemiplegia. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33(19–20), 1854–1865.

Zeng, H., Fink, G. R., & Weidner, R. (2020). Visual size processing in early visual cortex follows lateral occipital cortex involvement. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 40(22), 4410–4417.

Kurcyus, K., Annac, E., Hanning, N. M., Harris, A. D., Oeltzschner, G., Edden, R., & Riedl, V. (2018). Opposite dynamics of gaba and glutamate levels in the occipital cortex during visual processing. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 38(46), 9967–9976.

Temporal Resources

Short Term Memory

Salis, C., Kelly, H., & Code, C. (2015). Assessment and treatment of short-term and working memory impairments in stroke aphasia: A practical tutorial. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 50(6), 721–736.

Allen, C. M., Martin, R. C., & Martin, N. (2012). Relations between short-term memory deficits, semantic processing, and executive function. Aphasiology, 26(3–4), 428–461.

Woods, D. L., Kishiyama, M. M., Yund, E. W., Herron, T. J., Edwards, B., Poliva, O., Hink, R. F., & Reed, B. (2011). Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 101–111.

Martin, R. C., Lesch, M. F., & Bartha, M. C. (1999). Independence of input and output phonology in word processing and short-term memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 41(1), 3–29.

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Wally, M. E., Nomoto, M., Abdou, K., Murayama, E., & Inokuchi, K. (2022). A short-term memory trace persists for days in the mouse hippocampus. Communications Biology, 5, 1168.

Changes in Affect

Snyderman, D., & Rovner, B. (2009). Mental status exam in primary care: A review. American Family Physician, 80(8), 809–814.

Voss, R. M., & M Das, J. (2023). Mental status examination. StatPearls Publishing. 

Martin, D. C. (1990). The mental status examination. In H. K. Walker, W. D. Hall, & J. W. Hurst (Eds.), Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (3rd ed.). Butterworths.

Kirkpatrick, B., Strauss, G. P., Nguyen, L., Fischer, B. A., Daniel, D. G., Cienfuegos, A., & Marder, S. R. (2011). The brief negative symptom scale: Psychometric properties. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(2), 300–305.

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Helmstaedter, C., Sonntag-Dillender, M., Hoppe, C., & Elger, C. E. (2004). Depressed mood and memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy as a function of focus lateralization and localization. Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B, 5(5), 696–701.

Upper Quadrant Vision

Spector, R. H. (1990). Visual fields. In H. K. Walker, W. D. Hall, & J. W. Hurst (Eds.), Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (3rd ed.). Butterworths.

Sankar, P. S., O’Keefe, L., Choi, D., Salowe, R., Miller-Ellis, E., Lehman, A., Addis, V., Ramakrishnan, M., Natesh, V., Whitehead, G., Khachatryan, N., & O’Brien, J. (2017). The scheie visual field grading system. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 8(3), 651.

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Van Lanen, R. H. G. J., Hoeberigs, M. C., Bauer, N. J. C., Haeren, R. H. L., Hoogland, G., Colon, A., Piersma, C., Dings, J. T. A., & Schijns, O. E. M. G. (2018). Visual field deficits after epilepsy surgery: A new quantitative scoring method. Acta Neurochirurgica, 160(7), 1325–1336.

Episodic Memory

Dikmen, S. S., Bauer, P. J., Weintraub, S., Mungas, D., Slotkin, J., Beaumont, J. L., Gershon, R., Temkin, N. R., & Heaton, R. K. (2014). Measuring episodic memory across the lifespan: Nih toolbox picture sequence memory test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 20(6), 611–619.

Hale, C., Last, B. S., Meier, I. B., Yeung, L.-K., Budge, M., Sloan, R. P., Small, S. A., & Brickman, A. M. (2019). The modrey: An episodic memory test for nonclinical and preclinical populations. Assessment, 26(6), 1154–1161.

Khosravi Fard, E., L. Keelor, J., Akbarzadeh Bagheban, A., Keith, R., W. (2016). Comparison of the rey auditory verbal learning test (Ravlt) and digit test among typically achieving and gifted students. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, 10(2), 26–37.

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Dickerson, B. C., & Eichenbaum, H. (2010). The episodic memory system: Neurocircuitry and disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(1), 86–104.

Zammit, A. R., Ezzati, A., Zimmerman, M. E., Lipton, R. B., Lipton, M. L., & Katz, M. J. (2017). Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 317, 157–162.


Jennische, M., Sedin, G., Johnsen, B., & Sundelin, C. (1992). Assessment of speech and language skills in children. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 97(3), 229–250.

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Meneguello, J., Leonhardt, F. D., & Pereira, L. D. (2015). Auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 72(4), 496–504.

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Cerebellum Resources


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Finger to Nose

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Intentional Tremor

Javalkar, V., Khan, M., & Davis, D. E. (2014). Clinical manifestations of cerebellar disease. Neurologic Clinics, 32(4), 871–879.

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Trouillas, P., Takayanagi, T., Hallett, M., Currier, R. D., Subramony, S. H., Wessel, K., Bryer, A., Diener, H. C., Massaquoi, S., Gomez, C. M., Coutinho, P., Ben Hamida, M., Campanella, G., Filla, A., Schut, L., Timann, D., Honnorat, J., Nighoghossian, N., & Manyam, B. (1997). International cooperative ataxia rating scale for pharmacological assessment of the cerebellar syndrome. The ataxia neuropharmacology committee of the world federation of neurology. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 145(2), 205–211.

*PDF of Scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) for Finger to Nose Test

Honda, T., Mitoma, H., Yoshida, H., Bando, K., Terashi, H., Taguchi, T., Miyata, Y., Kumada, S., Hanakawa, T., Aizawa, H., Yano, S., Kondo, T., Mizusawa, H., Manto, M., & Kakei, S. (2020). Assessment and rating of motor cerebellar ataxias with the kinect v2 depth sensor: Extending our appraisal. Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 179.

Mohammadi-Ghazi, R., Nguyen, H., Mishra, R. K., Enriquez, A., Najafi, B., Stephen, C. D., Gupta, A. S., Schmahmann, J. D., & Vaziri, A. (2022). Objective assessment of upper-extremity motor functions in spinocerebellar ataxia using wearable sensors. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(20), 7993.

Kashyap, B., Phan, D., Pathirana, P. N., Horne, M., Power, L., & Szmulewicz, D. (2020). Objective assessment of cerebellar ataxia: A comprehensive and refined approach. Scientific Reports, 10, 9493.

Zhang, Q., Zhou, X., Li, Y., Yang, X., & Abbasi, Q. H. (2021). Clinical recognition of sensory ataxia and cerebellar ataxia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 639871.

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Saute, J. A. M., Donis, K. C., Serrano-Munuera, C., Genis, D., Ramirez, L. T., Mazzetti, P., Pérez, L. V., Latorre, P., Sequeiros, J., Matilla-Dueñas, A., Jardim, L. B., & Iberoamerican Multidisciplinary Network for the Study of Movement Disorders (RIBERMOV) Study Group. (2012). Ataxia rating scales—Psychometric profiles, natural history and their application in clinical trials. Cerebellum (London, England), 11(2), 488–504.

Hafiz, S., & De Jesus, O. (2023). Ataxia. StatPearls Publishing.

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Neurorehabilitation Resources

Neurorehabilitation Resources

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Mena-Garcia, L., Pastor-Jimeno, J. C., Maldonado, M. J., Coco-Martin, M. B., Fernandez, I., & Arenillas, J. F. (2021). Multitasking compensatory saccadic training program for hemianopia patients: A new approach with 3-dimensional real-world objects. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 10(2), 3.

Hubbard, I. J., Carey, L. M., Budd, T. W., Levi, C., McElduff, P., Hudson, S., Bateman, G., & Parsons, M. W. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of early upper-limb training on stroke recovery and brain activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 29(8), 703–713.

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Spironelli, C., & Borella, E. (2021). Working memory training and cortical arousal in healthy older adults: A resting-state eeg pilot study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 13, 718965.

Barnes, J. J., Nobre, A. C., Woolrich, M. W., Baker, K., & Astle, D. E. (2016). Training working memory in childhood enhances coupling between frontoparietal control network and task-related regions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(34), 9001–9011.

Hartmann, L., Sallard, E., & Spierer, L. (2016). Enhancing frontal top-down inhibitory control with Go/NoGo training. Brain Structure and Function, 221(7), 3835–3842.

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Demakis, G. J. (2004). Frontal lobe damage and tests of executive processing: A meta-analysis of the category test, stroop test, and trail-making test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26(3), 441–450.

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Auer, T., Schwarcz, A., Aradi, M., Kalmár, Z., Pendleton, C., Janszky, I., Horváth, R. A., Szalay, C., Dóczi, T., Komoly, S., & Janszky, J. (2008). Right-left discrimination is related to the right hemisphere. Laterality, 13(5), 427–438.

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Neurology of Eye Movements book cover

The Neurology of Eye Movements

(Contemporary Neurology Series) 5th Edition by John R.Leigh, David S. Zee

Identifying the Neurological Pathways

John R.Leigh, MD

Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine

Residencies, Internships and Fellowships

Fellowship: Neurology
The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Residency: Neurology
Cornell Medical Center

Research Fellowship: Neurology
Newcastle University

Board Certification:

  • Royal College of Physicians, United Kingdom
  • American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

David S. Zee, MD

Dr. David Zee specializes in vertigo, dizzinessand imbalance (including ataxia) and in disorders of eye movements (including nystagmus and strabismus). He is a Professor of Neurology with secondary appointments in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ophthalmology and Neuroscience.

Dr. David Zee received his medical degree from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. He completed residency training in Neurology at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and pursued additional clinical training at the National Institutes of Health.

Recommended Reading

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BEHAVE The Biology of Humans at our best and worst


CONNECTOME How the Brain’s Wiring Makes US Who We Are

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Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind